Our assessments are based on widely accepted and validated research in the fields of psychology and psychometrics.

The Personality Insights models

As described in Personality Insights basics, Personality Insights analytics are developed based on the psychology of language in combination with data analytics algorithms. The characteristics are described in terms of three models:

Big Five

The first personality model, Big Five, was developed by Costa and Norman is the most widely used model to generally describe how a person engages with the world (see The science behind the service for more information). The model includes five primary dimensions:

Each top-level dimension has six subdimensions, or facets, that further characterize an individual according to the dimension. The following sections introduce the dimensions and provide detailed information about their facets. Each section includes three tables that provide the following information:

  • The first table, Facets, lists the dimension’s facets and provides a brief description of individuals who score highly in each facet.
  • The second table, Range of characteristics, presents general descriptions that might apply to individuals whose scores evidence more of less of each facet of the dimension, as well as terms that might describe such individuals.

    The document PI-Facet-Characteristics.pdf provides a convenient single-page table that includes theRange of characteristics tables for the facets of all five dimensions.

  • The third table, Primary and secondary dimensions, presents information that relates the dimension to other dimensions, describing combinations of personality characteristics. In this table, the rows represent the dimension that is identified as the individual’s primary characteristic, and the columns provide terms that might describe people whose scores on the remaining secondary dimensions are higher or lower. The table provides interesting insight into how primary and secondary characteristics might interrelate to represent an individual’s composite personality.

    The document PI-Dimension-Characteristics.pdf provides a convenient single-page table that includes thePrimary and secondary characteristics tables for all five dimensions.



Agreeableness is a person’s tendency to be compassionate and cooperative toward others.

Agreeableness Table 1: Facets

Facet People who score high…
Altruism / Altruistic Find that helping others is genuinely rewarding, that doing things for others is a form of self-fulfillment rather than self-sacrifice.
Cooperation / Accommodating / Compliance Dislike confrontation. They are perfectly willing to compromise or to deny their own needs to get along with others.
Modesty / Modest Are unassuming, rather self-effacing, and humble. However, they do not necessarily lack self-confidence or self-esteem.
Morality / Uncompromising / Sincerity See no need for pretense or manipulation when dealing with others and are therefore candid, frank, and genuine.
Sympathy / Empathetic Are tender-hearted and compassionate.
Trust / Trusting of others Assume that most people are fundamentally fair, honest, and have good intentions. They take people at face value and are willing to forgive and forget.

Agreeableness Table 2: Range of characteristics

Description of LOW Value Description of HIGH Value
Description Term Facet Term Description
You are more concerned with taking care of yourself than taking time for others. Self-focused Altruism Altruistic You feel fulfilled when helping others and will go out of your way to do so.
You do not shy away from contradicting others. Contrary Cooperation Accommodating You are easy to please and try to avoid confrontation.
You hold yourself in high regard and are satisfied with who you are. Proud Modesty Modest You are uncomfortable being the center of attention.
You are comfortable using every trick in the book to get what you want. Compromising Morality Uncompromising You think it is wrong to take advantage of others to get ahead.
You think people should generally rely more on themselves than on others. Hard-hearted Sympathy Empathetic You feel what others feel and are compassionate toward them.
You are wary of other people’s intentions and do not trust easily. Cautious of others Trust Trusting of others You believe the best of others and trust people easily.

Agreeableness Table 3: Primary and secondary dimensions

Conscientiousness Extraversion Emotional Range Openness
High Low High Low High Low High Low
High Helpful, cooperative, considerate, respectful, polite Unpretentious, self-effacing Effervescent, happy, friendly, merry, jovial Soft-hearted, agreeable, obliging, humble, lenient Sentimental, affectionate, sensitive, soft, passionate Generous, pleasant, tolerant, peaceful, flexible Genial, tactful, diplomatic, deep, idealistic Dependent, simple
Low Strict, rigid, stern Inconsiderate, impolite, distrustful, uncooperative, thoughtless Bullheaded, abrupt, crude, combative, rough Cynical, wary of others, reclusive, detached, impersonal Critical, selfish, ill-tempered, antagonistic, grumpy Insensitive, unaffectionate, passionless, unemotional Shrewd, eccentric, individualistic Coarse, tactless, curt, narrow-minded, callous



Conscientiousness is a person’s tendency to act in an organized or thoughtful way.

Conscientiousness Table 1: Facets

Facet People who score high…
Achievement striving / Driven Try hard to achieve excellence. Their drive to be recognized as successful keeps them on track as they work hard to accomplish their goals.
Cautiousness / Deliberate / Deliberateness Are disposed to think through possibilities carefully before acting.
Dutifulness / Dutiful / Sense of responsibility Have a strong sense of duty and obligation.
Orderliness / Organized Are well-organized, tidy, and neat.
Self-discipline / Persistent Have the self-discipline, or “will-power,” to persist at difficult or unpleasant tasks until they are completed.
Self-efficacy / Self-assured / Sense of competence Are confident in their ability to accomplish things.

Conscientiousness Table 2: Range of characteristics

Description of LOW Value Description of HIGH Value
Description Term Facet Term Description
You are content with your level of accomplishment and do not feel the need to set ambitious goals. Content Achievement-striving Driven You set high goals for yourself and work hard to achieve them.
You would rather take action immediately than spend time deliberating making a decision. Bold Cautiousness Deliberate You carefully think through decisions before making them.
You do what you want, disregarding rules and obligations. Carefree Dutifulness Dutiful You take rules and obligations seriously, even when they are inconvenient.
You do not make a lot of time for organization in your daily life. Unstructured Orderliness Organized You feel a strong need for structure in your life.
You have a hard time sticking with difficult tasks for a long period of time. Intermittent Self-discipline Persistent You can tackle and stick with tough tasks.
You frequently doubt your ability to achieve your goals. Self-doubting Self-efficacy Self-assured You feel you have the ability to succeed in the tasks you set out to do.

Conscientiousness Table 3: Primary and secondary dimensions

Agreeableness Extraversion Emotional Range Openness
High Low High Low High Low High Low
High Dependable, responsible, reliable, mannerly, considerate Stern, strict, rigid Ambitious, alert, firm, purposeful, competitive Cautious, confident, punctual, formal, thrifty Particular, high-strung Thorough, steady, consistent, self-disciplined, logical Sophisticated, perfectionistic, industrious, dignified, refined Traditional, conventional
Low Unpretentious, self-effacing Rash, uncooperative, unreliable, distrustful, thoughtless Unruly, boisterous, reckless, devil-may-care, demonstrative Indecisive, aimless, wishy-washy, noncommittal, unambitious Scatterbrained, inconsistent, erratic, forgetful, impulsive Informal, low-key Unconventional, quirky Foolhardy, illogical, immature, haphazard, lax



Extraversion is a person’s tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.

Extraversion Table 1: Facets

Facet People who score high…
Activity level / Energetic Lead fast-paced and busy lives. They do things and move about quickly, energetically, and vigorously, and they are involved in many activities.
Assertiveness / Assertive Like to take charge and direct the activities of others. They tend to be leaders in groups.
Cheerfulness / Cheerful / Positive emotions Experience a range of positive feelings, including happiness, enthusiasm, optimism, and joy.
Excitement-seeking Are easily bored without high levels of stimulation.
Friendliness / Outgoing / Warmth Genuinely like other people and openly demonstrate positive feelings toward others.
Gregariousness / Sociable Find the company of others pleasantly stimulating and rewarding. They enjoy the excitement of crowds.

Extraversion Table 2: Range of characteristics

Description of LOW Value Description of HIGH Value
Description Term Facet Term Description
You appreciate a relaxed pace in life. Laid-back Activity level Energetic You enjoy a fast-paced, busy schedule with many activities.
You prefer to listen than to talk, especially in group settings. Demure Assertiveness Assertive You tend to speak up and take charge of situations, and you are comfortable leading groups.
You are generally serious and do not joke much. Solemn Cheerfulness Cheerful You are a joyful person and share that joy with the world.
You prefer activities that are quiet, calm, and safe. Calm-seeking Excitement-seeking Excitement-seeking You are excited by taking risks and feel bored without lots of action going on.
You are a private person and do not let many people in. Reserved Friendliness Outgoing You make friends easily and feel comfortable around other people.
You have a strong desire to have time to yourself. Independent Gregariousness Sociable You enjoy being in the company of others.

Extraversion Table 3: Primary and secondary dimensions

Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Range Openness
High Low High Low High Low High Low
High Social, energetic, enthusiastic, communicative, vibrant Opinionated, forceful, domineering, boastful, bossy Active, competitive, persistent, ambitious, purposeful Boisterous, mischievous, exhibitionistic, gregarious, demonstrative Explosive, wordy, extravagant, volatile, flirtatious Confident, bold, assured, uninhibited, courageous Expressive, candid, dramatic, spontaneous, witty Verbose, unscrupulous, pompous
Low Unaggressive, humble, submissive, timid, compliant Skeptical, wary of others, seclusive, uncommunicative, unsociable Restrained, serious, discreet, cautious, principled Indirect, unenergetic, sluggish, non-persistent, vague Guarded, pessimistic, secretive, cowardly Tranquil, sedate, placid, impartial, unassuming Inner-directed, introspective, meditative, contemplating, self-examining Somber, meek, unadventurous, passive, apathetic


Emotional Range

Emotional Range, also referred to as Neuroticism or Natural Reactions, is the extent to which a person’s emotions are sensitive to the individual’s environment.

Emotional Range Table 1: Facets

Facet People who score high…
Anger / Fiery Have a tendency to feel angry.
Anxiety / Prone to worry Often feel like something unpleasant, threatening, or dangerous is about to happen. The “fight-or-flight” system of their brains is too easily and too often engaged.
Depression / Melancholy / Moodiness Tend to react more readily to life’s ups and downs.
Immoderation / Self-indulgence Feel strong cravings and urges that they have difficulty resisting, even though they know that they are likely to regret them later. They tend to be oriented toward short-term pleasures and rewards rather than long-term consequences.
Self-consciousness Are sensitive about what others think of them. Their concerns about rejection and ridicule cause them to feel shy and uncomfortable around others; they are easily embarrassed.
Vulnerability / Susceptible to stress / Sensitivity to stress Have difficulty coping with stress. They experience panic, confusion, and helplessness when under pressure or when facing emergency situations.

Emotional Range Table 2: Range of characteristics

Description of LOW Value Description of HIGH Value
Description Term Facet Term Description
It takes a lot to get you angry. Mild-tempered Anger Fiery You have a fiery temper, especially when things do not go your way.
You tend to feel calm and self-assured. Self-assured Anxiety Prone to worry You tend to worry about things that might happen.
You are generally comfortable with yourself as you are. Content Depression Melancholy You think quite often about the things you are unhappy about.
You have control over your desires, which are not particularly intense. Self-controlled Immoderation Hedonistic You feel your desires strongly and are easily tempted by them.
You are hard to embarrass and are self-confident most of the time. Confident Self-consciousness Self-conscious You are sensitive about what others might be thinking of you.
You handle unexpected events calmly and effectively. Calm under pressure Vulnerability Susceptible to stress You are easily overwhelmed in stressful situations.

Emotional Range Table 3: Primary and secondary dimensions

Agreeableness Conscientiousness Extraversion Openness
High Low High Low High Low High Low
High Emotional, gullible, affectionate, sensitive, soft Temperamental, irritable, quarrelsome, impatient, grumpy Particular, high-strung Compulsive, nosy, self-indulgent, forgetful, impulsive Excitable, wordy, flirtatious, explosive, extravagant Guarded, fretful, insecure, pessimistic, secretive Excitable, passionate, sensual Easily rattled, easily irked, apprehensive
Low Patient, relaxed, undemanding, down-to-earth Unemotional, insensitive, unaffectionate, passionless Rational, objective, steady, logical, decisive Informal, low-key Unself-conscious, weariless, indefatigible Unassuming, unexcitable, placid, tranquil Heartfelt, versatile, creative, intellectual, insightful Imperturbable, insensitive



Openness, or Open to Experience, is the extent to which a person is open to experiencing a variety of activities.

Openness Table 1: Facets

Facet People who score high…
Adventurousness / Willingness to experiment Are eager to try new activities and experience different things. They find familiarity and routine boring.
Artistic interests Love beauty, both in art and in nature. They become easily involved and absorbed in artistic and natural events. With intellect, this facet is one of the two most important, central aspects of this characteristic.
Emotionality / Emotionally aware / Depth of emotions Have good access to and awareness of their own feelings.
Imagination View the real world as often too plain and ordinary. They use fantasy not as an escape but as a way of creating for themselves a richer and more interesting inner-world.
Intellect / Intellectual curiosity Are intellectually curious and tend to think in symbols and abstractions. With artistic interests, this facet is one of the two most important, central aspects of this characteristic.
Liberalism / Authority challenging / Tolerance for diversity Have a readiness to challenge authority, convention, and traditional values.

Openness Table 2: Range of characteristics

Description of LOW Value Description of HIGH Value
Description Term Facet Term Description
You enjoy familiar routines and prefer not to deviate from them. Consistent Adventurousness Adventurous You are eager to experience new things.
You are less concerned with artistic or creative activities than most people. Unconcerned with art Artistic interests Appreciative of art You enjoy beauty and seek out creative experiences.
You do not frequently think about or openly express your emotions. Dispassionate Emotionality Emotionally aware You are aware of your feelings and how to express them.
You prefer facts over fantasy. Down-to-earth Imagination Imaginative You have a wild imagination.
You prefer dealing with the world as it is, rarely considering abstract ideas. Concrete Intellect Philosophical You are open to and intrigued by new ideas and love to explore them.
You prefer following with tradition to maintain a sense of stability. Respectful of authority Liberalism Authority-challenging You prefer to challenge authority and traditional values to help bring about change.

Openness Table 3: Primary and secondary dimensions

Agreeableness Conscientiousness Extraversion Emotional Range
High Low High Low High Low High Low
High Idealistic, diplomatic, deep, tactful, genial Shrewd, eccentric, individualistic Analytical, perceptive, informative, articulate, dignified Unconventional, quirky Worldly, theatrical, eloquent, inquisitive, intense Introspective, meditative, contemplating, self-examining, inner-directed Passionate, excitable, sensual Creative, intellectual, insightful, versatile, inventive
Low Simple, dependent Coarse, tactless, curt, narrow-minded, callous Conventional, traditional Shortsighted, foolhardy, illogical, immature, haphazard Verbose, unscrupulous, pompous Predictable, unimaginative, somber, apathetic, unadventurous Easily rattled, easily irked, apprehensive Imperturbable, insensitive


The second model, Needs, describes at a high level which aspects of a product are likely to resonate with the author of the text. The model includes twelve categories of needs based on Kotler’s and Ford’s work in marketing (see The science behind the service for more information). The following table describes the twelve categories of needs that are evaluated by the Personality Insights service.

Need People who score high…
Excitement Want to get out there and live life, have upbeat emotions, and want to have fun.
Harmony Appreciate other people, their viewpoints, and their feelings.
Curiosity Have a desire to discover, find out, and grow.
Ideal Desire perfection and a sense of community.
Closeness Relish being connected to family and setting up a home.
Self-expression Enjoy discovering and asserting their own identities.
Liberty Have a desire for fashion and new things, as well as the need for escape.
Love Enjoy social contact, whether one-to-one or one-to-many. Any brand that is involved in bringing people together taps this need.
Practicality Have a desire to get the job done, a desire for skill and efficiency, which can include physical expression and experience.
Stability Seek equivalence in the physical world. They favor the sensible, the tried and tested.
Challenge Have an urge to achieve, to succeed, and to take on challenges.
Structure Exhibit groundedness and a desire to hold things together. They need things to be well organized and under control.


The third model, Values, describes motivating factors that influence the author’s decision-making. The model includes five dimensions of human values based on Schwartz’s work in psychology (see The science behind the service for more information). The following table describes the five values that are inferred by the Personality Insights service.

Value People who score high…
Self-transcendence / Helping others Show concern for the welfare and interests of others.
Conservation / Tradition Emphasize self-restriction, order, and resistance to change.
Hedonism / Taking pleasure in life Seek pleasure and sensuous gratification for themselves.
Self-enhancement / Achieving success Seek personal success for themselves.
Open to change / Excitement Emphasize independent action, thought, and feeling, as well as a readiness for new experiences.

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